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Students: the Main Actors in the Learning Process (Flipped Learning Research Findings)

Students: the Main Actors in the Learning Process (Flipped Learning Research Findings)

–Initially revealed at

Final yr, I submitted a 16,500 phrase analysis undertaking on Flipped Learning, the end result of 3 years research and countless hours of reading, learning and interviewing the scholars involved in the analysis. Free now from the shackles of stated analysis I really feel that there are some insights worthy of sharing that would help us all study.

The findings have been largely sudden and obtained me excited about the potential of some concepts, chiefly the merits of truly interviewing college students as the primary actors and specialists in any learning course of.

To provide these ideas somewhat context it is sensible to share with you all the purpose of my analysis undertaking. People who know me will know I’m an advocate of Flipped Learning (FL) so I designed a research question with the precise goal of finding out some new info in this area.

To what extent is Flipped Learning an effective pedagogical strategy for enhancing scholar motivation and studying in the secondary faculty setting? 

To answer this I needed to literally immerse myself in the analysis so lent heavily on qualitative knowledge collection via participant interviews. To say I underestimated the workload involved in interviewing students is an understatement, it’s epic!

I designed a combined strategies strategy, combining quantitative knowledge from a pre and post-test design with qualitative knowledge from the interviews which I carried out, transcribed then utilized thematic evaluation to. The results and ensuing epistemology have been fascinating. For the aim of the weblog, it is sensible to split those insights into these I assumed may happen and people I wasn’t anticipating. The unanticipated insights are the ones that excited me and intrigue me probably the most. So right here we go …

Anticipated Insights

  • Most students made progress when exposed to FL
  • Autonomy, relatedness, and competence emerged as key motivating elements with FL

Sudden Insights

  • The SEN sample made no progress in any respect when uncovered to FL
  • Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Improvement could possibly be a key theoretical framework to view SEN progress and motivation via in future analysis
  • Students study greatest between 6pm and 9pm within the evening
  • Students self-regulate their learning time to 26 minutes, very similar to the 27 minute ALT (Educational Studying Time) mannequin proposed by John Hattie (2014)

Some more information on those Expected insights

College students made progress 

The methodology was designed around a management group (Yr 10: Flipped 101 GCSE with 20 college students) and an intervention group (Yr 11: Flipped Mastery GCSE with 28 college students). So, 48 college students in complete have been concerned within the analysis. All 48 students have been subjected to a pre-test prior to being uncovered to Flipped Learning. Students’ have been examined once more after eight weeks to assess progress made between the pre and post-test. This can be a commonplace design in the FL domain and the outcomes have been in line with different FL research adopting the identical design (Mussallam 2010, Deslauriers & Wieman 2011, Pierce & Fox 2012, Ventry & Kilmer 2013 and Extra 2017). So, on this research college students made progress over time, p = zero.05. Consistent with the positivist view, quantitative research depends upon scientific hypothesizes being formulated after which tested.   In this research, I assumed the scholars would make progress over time when uncovered to FL they usually did.

Self-Willpower Concept (SDT) is prevalent

SDT, a principle proposed by Deci and Ryan in 2002 explains how the essential psychological wants of autonomy, relatedness and competence are elementary for intrinsic motivation. Apparently, autonomy featured highly inside the analytical narrative on this analysis. Pedagogical approaches that require students to self-regulate learning at residence (reminiscent of flipped learning) are synonymous with SDT and particularly autonomy (Zainzuddin et al 2017).

And … The Sudden insights

This is the cool bit! At the finish of the testing window, I carried out 16 interviews asking college students immediately about their experiences and emotions referring to Flipped Studying. The ensuing dialogues tend to leap out of the transcripts and type codes. Take a look at the process under …

Step 1: Interview all 16 scholar individuals, make sure that a balanced pattern is represented.

Step 2: Transcribe all the interviews … this takes hours however a narrative begins to seem, weirdly the transcripts start to talk to you and inform a story. Qualitative Researchers name this the analytical narrative.

Step three: Applying Thematic Evaluation, all 6 steps (Braun & Clarke 2008). So, you apply a set of codes to each transcript. After step 1 and a couple of, 59 codes emerged. These codes then are chunked to type themes.

Step four: Latent and Semantic themes

Themes either emerge from the codes and analytic narrative or they fester underneath the surface on the info, hidden from view till the researcher notices them and their relevance. That is what all of the arduous work is for! On the surface … 3 themes emerged, illustrated within the diagram under.

Step 5: Write the report

Whilst triangulating all the info from the quant and qual methods, the next insights emerged.

  • FL improves scholar motivation and confidence to study at residence.
  • Students like accessing content material ahead of time. FL facilitates this which college students recognize
  • College students feel they have autonomy with Fl to ‘discover learning at will’
  • College students like 24/7 access to classes. They view FL as a lesson they will take at residence once they like.
  • Students pause the movies during FL they usually can rewind those movies. This enables them to self-regulate their studying. They can’t pause and rewind stay lessons that happen in actual time.
  • College students see their phones and cellular units as crucial to learning. This strengthens the Digital Nativesargument put ahead by Prensky (2000) that the scholars we train are the All the time ON era, born post-2000 they have grown up reliant on know-how, so are Techno Philes. 
  • Students see the web as a instructor but finally worth the input of the instructor even more.

The position of the instructor is altering. We’re not simply dispensers of data. Students can find out information for themselves. Information is prompt. Know-how and the web is the rationale for this. College students now rely on academics to verify that information, validate the authenticity and take the information to the subsequent degree! At this stage, I am not totally positive what the subsequent degree entails. Potential exists to explore SOLO taxonomy about which Joe B blogged about final month. Flipped Studying, specifically how college students self-regulate studying outdoors of the classroom could possibly be exciting areas of exploration too!

So if the students have informed me all of this, what does it actually imply?

Properly, the great thing about qualitative analysis is that it’s by nature subjective. I acknowledge my interpretations may differ from one other and that’s ok. As a qualitative researcher immersed in the analysis I had to stay reflexive and trust that the themes would reveal a larger story, the BIG image!

The BIG Picture

I really feel it’s essential to clarify at this level I’ve by no means been snug with the term ‘SEN’. Fellow hipster Nige invented the term ‘youngsters who need assistance to study’ as a positive various to the SEN term used in UK faculties. I favor Nige’s perspective and feel that it matches properly into my ethos and considering around the ZPD and the way academics can help students in creating new information. Sadly, the special populations prescribed inside the UK faculties rhetoric pressured me to concentrate on special populations that alraedy existed – hence the reluctant inclusion of the time period SEN.

SEN college students made less progress when exposed to FL. The quantitative post-test knowledge confirmed SEN college students made zero and in some instances unfavorable progress when exposed to FL. All other populations (Pupil Premium, Gifted and Gifted, English as Further Language and Other) made vital progress. This discovering correlated instantly with the SEN insights from the interviews. I don’t know why SEN students didn’t make progress however the interviews recommend the answer might lie in confidence and motivation to work away from the instructor. So, with this in thoughts, the writer proposes Vygotsky’s (1978) Zone of Proximal Improvement as a potential lens to view this by means of.

The ZPD proposition suggests that when the scholar, with the good thing about scaffolding,  masters the duty; the scaffolding can then be eliminated so the scholar can full the task on their own. The overlapping part of the Venn-diagram illustrates the ZPD visually.

I propose that SEN college students require more time within the ZPD, working intently with the instructor within the scaffolding course of and perhaps that is why they did not perform properly when exposed to FL. Extra research on the affect of the instructor/scholar within the ZPD must be carried out. The model under might be a very good start line to facilitate future ZPD related analysis when considering new pedagogical approaches. especially within the qualitative area.

This can be a vital insight and a new path for FL related research going forward! Perhaps Vygotsky saw the ZPD as a paradigm for explaining the related however not yet recognized things that a scholar is able to study. The overlapping curves of the Venn-diagram might signify the degree or extent of scaffolding that needs to happen. Youngsters who require extra help with their studying, particularly in the scaffolding and validation of data levels might conceivably spend more time in the zone … I’m intrigued both by the chances and implications of this. The subsequent Instructional Hipster blog options some thoughts from Nige on youngsters who need help to study. Maintain your eyes peeled …

27 Minutes ALT 

All 48 students on this research accomplished the FL tasks between 6pm and 9pm within the evenings. As their instructor this is useful to know, they wish to study right now.

What’s more fascinating is that the imply common time spent on activity = 26 minutes. It is perhaps coincidental however that time period could be very close to Hattie’s (2014) analysis on ALT: Educational Studying Time which concluded 27 minutes because the optimum time college students can study with out distractions. The vary for the Hattie research was between 9 and 45 minutes ALT, averaged at 27 minutes. This was a credible research and may supply educators globally a recent insight into how college students study. In my research, college students self-regulated their very own learning time and on average spent 26 minutes on the task.

In faculties, lessons are principally 60 minutes so I propose we modify this. Why not restructure the varsity day right into a collection of 30-minute learning episodes?

While I respect the logistical limitations of this, the idea of ALT is unquestionably worthy of future exploration. As a compromise, how about breaking down a 60-minute lesson into 2 x 27-minute learning episodes cut up with a short break in the middle. Or, better nonetheless 2 x 27-minute variations of Flipped Studying … this really does work!

All in all, this was a therapeutic process. It taught me to take heed to the scholars, they’re an important individuals in any case. From their insights, we will study and develop and reshape the tutorial landscape whilst we go …